Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. T he committee believes that assessments of technological literacy would benefit from—may even require—innovative approaches, especially for the capability dimension, for which test takers must demonstrate iterative problem-solving techniques typical of a design process. Even with thoughtfully developed paper-and-pencil assessments, it would be extremely difficult to assess this dimension.
Social scientists, public opinion polling organizations, and others interested in assessing what out-of-school experiences contribute to technological literacy have few tools at their disposal. In national-scale surveys, for example, it is customary to contact participants by telephone using various forms of random-digit dialing. However, response rates have dropped significantly recently because of the number of research surveys, the exponential increase in cell phone use, and other factors, raising concerns about the reliability and validity of survey data.
Free-choice learning environments, such as museums and science centers, are also struggling to find ways of measuring attitudinal changes and learning as a result of exposure to exhibits and other programs. The presentation strategies and analyses possible with computer-based methods would be, at best, impractical, and often, out of the question with traditional assessment methods. Computer-based methods could have several advantages over traditional methods. They could provide faster, more accurate scoring Bahr and Bahr,reduce test.
They could also be designed to meet the needs of special populations, including people with physical disabilities and people from diverse cultural or linguistic backgrounds Naglieri et al. However, there are legitimate concerns about using computers in educational testing. A potential limitation, of course, is the lack of computer literacy of the test population. Test takers—children or adults— who do not have at least a basic familiarity with computers and computer keyboarding may not perform as well as those who have at least basic computer skills Russell, In addition, requirements for computer memory and processing speeds, graphics quality, and bandwidth— for applications using the Internet—may pose significant cost and resource barriers.
There are legitimate concerns about using computers in educational testing. Computer-based tests would be just as susceptible to cheating as traditional paper-and-pencil assessments, although the types of cheating and strategies for countering them may differ.
Why Technology-Based Assessments Fill an Important Role in Instruction
For example, someone other than the registered examinee could take the test or help answer questions on an assessment administered remotely online. To preclude this kind of cheating, authentication could be attempted using a biometric measure e. It is important to keep in mind that although computer technology could potentially increase testing flexibility, authenticity, efficiency, and accuracy, computer-based assessments must still be subject to the same defensible standards as paper-and-pencil assessments, particularly if the results are used to make important decisions.
The following discussion focuses on aspects of computer-based testing that offer significant potential benefits for the assessment of technological literacy. Computer-based, flexi-level, branching, and stratified adaptive testing have been investigated for more than 30 years Baker, ; Bunderson et al.
Research has been focused mostly on using interactive computer technology to select, in real time, specific items to present to individual. Incorrect responses evoke less difficult items in that dimension, whereas correct responses evoke increasingly difficult items until the standard error of estimate for that dimension oscillates regularly—within preset confidence levels— around a particular value.Other characteristics of performance-based assessments are that they are complex and time-bound.
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Performance-based activities can be challenging for students to complete. They need to understand from the beginning exactly what is being asked of them and how they will be assessed.
Examples and models may help, but it is more important to provide detailed criteria that will be used to assess the performance-based assessment. All criteria should be addressed in a scoring rubric. Observations are an important component and can be used to provide students with feedback to improve performance. There may be peer to peer student feedback. There could be a checklist or a tally to record student achievement. The goal of performance-based learning should be to enhance what the students have learned, not just have them recall facts.
The following six types of activities provide good starting points for assessments in performance-based learning. Art portfolios are for students who want to apply to art programs in college. The writing in a portfolio can be from any discipline or a combination of disciplines. The benefit of an activity like this is that it is something that grows over time and is therefore not just completed and forgotten.
A portfolio can provide students with a lasting selection of artifacts that they can use later in their academic career. Reflections may be included in student portfolios in which students may make a note of their growth based on the materials in the portfolio. Examples include dance, recital, dramatic enactment. There may be prose or poetry interpretation. Students must be provided time to address the demands of the activity; resources must be readily available and meet all safety standards.
Students should have opportunities to draft stage work and practice. Developing the criteria and the rubric and sharing these with students before evaluating a dramatic performance is critical.
Projects are commonly used by teachers as performance-based activities. They can include everything from research papers to artistic representations of information learned. They can be aligned with the higher levels of creativity, analysis, and synthesis. Students might be asked to complete reports, diagrams, and maps.
Teachers can also choose to have students work individually or in groups. Journals may be part of a performance-based assessment.
Teachers may require students to complete journal entries. Some teachers may use journals as a way to record participation. Teachers can expand the idea of performance-based activities by creating exhibits or fairs for students to display their work. Examples include things like history fairs to art exhibitions.To assess the impact of computer-based simulation on the achievement of student learning outcomes during mannequin-based simulation. Participants were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of students and then teams were randomly assigned to either a group that completed either computer-based or mannequin-based simulation cases first.
In both simulations, students used their critical thinking skills and selected interventions independent of facilitator input. A predetermined rubric was used to record and assess students' performance in the mannequin-based simulations. Feedback and student performance scores were generated by the software in the computer-based simulations. More of the teams in the group that completed the computer-based simulation before completing the mannequin-based simulation achieved the primary outcome for the exercise, which was survival of the simulated patient Students in both groups felt the computer-based simulation should be completed prior to the mannequin-based simulation.
The use of computer-based simulation prior to mannequin-based simulation improved the achievement of learning goals and outcomes. In addition to improving participants' skills, completing the computer-based simulation first may improve participants' confidence during the more real-life setting achieved in the mannequin-based simulation. Simulation is used to train many professionals including pilots, military personnel, business managers, and health care professionals, and is an effective active-learning technique that encourages the application of knowledge and skills in real-world scenarios.
Simulation has been shown to be superior to problem-based learning as a teaching method. The value of such simulation in pharmacy education is recognized and encouraged by the Accreditation Council for Pharmaceutical Education and has shown improvement in skills and improved retention of knowledge in doctor of pharmacy PharmD programs. Despite the ongoing use of simulation in education and training, little data exist on the use of multimodal simulation, including optimal preparation for simulation and proper sequencing of simulation activities.
A variety of outcomes from simulation have been investigated in pharmacy education, but there are no recommendations for integrating multiple modes of simulation. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of completing computer-based simulation sessions on student achievement of learning outcomes during mannequin-based simulation. This study was developed after the acquisition of the computer-based simulation program and responded to the need to discover the best way to integrate 2 methods of simulation to achieve learning outcomes.
This was a single-center, randomized, parallel-group, observational study of advanced cardiac life support ACLS outcomes in mannequin-based simulation. The study was conducted in a required multisection, multi-instructor pharmacotherapeutics practice laboratory course at a large, private pharmacy school. All students had completed prerequisite therapeutics courses that included pharmacotherapeutics of arrhythmias. The MicroSim Inhospital simulation program is available to 26 working stations in the classroom portion of the CAPS laboratory, and the MegaCodeKelly high-fidelity human patient simulator is located in an adjacent simulated hospital room.
Study participants were third-year PharmD students enrolled in the pharmacotherapeutics laboratory course. Participants were organized randomly into teams of 5 or 6 to simulate a hospital rapid response team, which in acute care is a multidisciplinary team that responds to cardiac arrest alerts.
Rapid response teams were assigned randomly to the group completing the mannequin-based simulation first or to the group completing the computer-based simulation first. If any team members had active ACLS certification or had completed computer-based simulation or mannequin-based simulation in the previous 6 months, the team was excluded from the study but still participated in the simulation session.The blending test is the first of four Phonics Assessment Tests that are routinely administered to OnTrack Reading clients.
As a parent, you should become familiar with each of these phonics tests and understand the particular phonemic awareness skills and phonics code knowledge they test.Rubrics for Assessment
If your child is struggling with reading, these four phonics tests can highlight at least some of the reasons for the struggling, as well as indicating where work needs to be done to improve your child's reading.
If you haven't yet read the page describing the notation used for the 43 sounds in the curriculum, you should do so before testing.
Check the Sidebar. Download the Test Scoresheet. The first test assesses blending skill.
The ability to blend sounds efficiently is a phonemic awareness skill that must be learned. A very young child will often encounter problems acquiring the ability to blend sounds, and this will make it difficult for him to even understand what reading is all about. In particular, he might think that reading is about memorizing the overall appearance of words, instead of deciphering the code embedded in each word, sound by sound.
The blending test is administered first because it makes the subsequent segmenting test instructions clearer to your child. The first test item is pig because almost all children who can blend at all can get the word pig. Find a quiet spot and sit across from your child so that he can see your lips.
Tell him before you begin that you are going to say some sounds and you want him to tell you what word they make. Put a check mark on the line after pig if he got it correct, or write what he actually said on the line if he said something other than pig. A perfect blending score is 15 out of The first nine items on the blending test are three-sound words, so you should be saying exactly three separated sounds for each word.
If your child has trouble with the three-sound words, this is a good indication that he has a poorly developed blending skill. Some of the three-sound words are actually tougher to blend than the longer test items. For example, pill will sometimes be blended as pickleran might come out rattenand pearl often comes back as purple from children with weak blending skills. The next three words are four-sound words, but are actually no more difficult to blend than the three-sound words.
This is also true of the five-sound words at the end of the blending test. The last six items are sometimes more of a memory test than a blending test, although some children have trouble blending two consonant sounds. The four and five sound words test your child's auditory memory capacity as well as his skill at blending This will show up on the four-sound section of the phonics assessment test.
Because decoding an unfamiliar word involves holding several sounds in memory at once, it will be more difficult for your child until his short-term memory capacity builds. Rather than worry about doing special memory exercises, be assured that the constant decoding being done in a good phonics curriculum will gradually build his short-term memory capacity. That completes the blending test of the phonics assessment.We live in an age of assessment in education.
One of my friends -- who happens to be a vice president of a large banking institution -- loves to post about the paradox of assessment. We need to know how students are learning and if they are mastering concepts and skills, and we often use that information to determine teacher effectiveness.
But in its most basic form, assessment is part of good instruction -- and technology offers teachers quick and efficient ways to incorporate assessment into instruction.
As a district administrator, I reviewed assessment data to identify gaps in curriculum and instruction, and then designed professional development to attend to these gaps.
As a technology director, I would look for hardware and software solutions that could help teachers and students. But high stake assessment is typically summative, and little can be done to recover from these gaps that have accumulated over the course of a year. Technology solutions offer tremendous possibilities for formative assessment. Hardware solutions for formative assessment include the clicker systems incorporated into so many interactive whiteboard solutions.
These typically allow an entire class to see graphs and charts of students' understanding. Software solutions for formative assessment are numerous. When looking for software, be sure to review for the integrated assessment components. Quick formative assessments should be incorporated throughout delivery of the content. This helps tremendously with test anxiety. In K, formative assessment solutions hardware and software are bountiful whereas in higher education, they are typically incorporated into the adopted text.
Formative assessment tools are not only informative to instruction, but also can be very engaging for the learner. Kecia leads the Center for Digital Education's efforts to bring together thought leaders in education.
She is also an adjunct professor at Johns Hopkins University and lives in the Greater Nashville area with her husband Dr. Clark Ray and their son Wes. Studies have long argued that there are three types of learners: audible, visual, or kinetic. The trick? To work out what type of learner you were, then harness it. This week, join us as we travel to the far north of Canada, where distance learning is nothing new to the schools of Connected North and virtual field trips transport students to distant places and spaces.
Like many industries today, higher education has largely embraced BYOD programs for the myriad benefits they provide. However, the implementation of BYOD also means a network that contains many untrusted and potentially infected devices at any time, each generating traffic that requires granular visibility and monitoring, and the timely identification of potential threats.
Development of a successful assessment requires careful consideration of design and delivery issues, which differ from paper-based assessment. CBA can be used to help increase the frequency of assessment without necessarily increasing the marking loadto offer immediate feedback and to make tests accessible anytime and anywhere.
It is also possible to create a number of assessments which draw from a single, shared question bank in NOW this is called a Question Library. This allows for the re-use of questions, and for their order to be randomised within a given assessment.
Feedback on student performance can be automatically delivered on a question-by-question basis, or for the whole assessment. CBA has also been used to simulate practice-based activities which traditional paper and pen assessments fall short of replicating, for example by incorporating video and audio. Many instances of this use can be found in clinical subjects, for example. The table below shows some of the more common rationales for using CBA, alongside their associated benefits.
CBA can be used with a diagnostic focus at the start of a course or module, or at other key points. It can also be used by staff to help identify gaps in student understanding at a cohort level. CBA can be used to provide formative assessment, i. This can be done in-class or as directed study.
CBA allows for instant feedback; this can be written to address student misconceptions directly, or to point students to relevant resources to support their own learning. CBA can be used to provide summative assessment, i. Summative CBA may be especially useful for large cohorts, or in distance learning, where 'economies of scale' are most applicable. A broader range of scenarios can be presented than would be possible in a paper-based exam, for example by including videos and simulations.
Developing assessments of this nature can take time, however. Although the NOW Assessment tool can support summative assessment in exam conditions, consideration must be given to the way that any such assessment is invigilated and administered. How will you verify students' identity and prevent cheating? Are spare PCs available? Are contingency plans in place should there be a system failure?
Have you considered special access arrangements e. Why use CBA? Bull and McKenna cite the following reasons to use CBA: To increase the frequency of assessment, thereby: motivating students to learn encouraging students to practise skills To broaden the range of knowledge assessed To increase feedback to students and lecturers To extend the range of assessment methods To increase objectivity and consistency To decrease marking loads To aid administrative efficiency.
Benefit of CBA Provide additional diagnostic or formative assessment opportunities. Detailed feedback can be built into CBA assessments, whether the main focus is diagnostic, formative or summative.
Provide timely feedback. This can be particularly useful for formative use. Mark work quickly. Tests are marked automatically and consistently by the computer Increase the flexibility of assessment delivery. CBA tests can be made available anytime, anywhere. The duration of the test, period for which the assessment is available and the number of attempts allowed, can all be varied. Test all of my students but also Vary the order of questions to encourage them to work individually.
Question libraries e.Computers and technology have impacted almost every industry across the globe. And, one specific area that has experienced a substantial change is the education industry.
The pace at which the process of teaching, assessing and learning has evolved is enough to signify the impact. Books have moved to ebooks, physical classrooms have turned into online classrooms, and paper-based tests have become online tests. Educators and instructors would jot down a set of questions on a paper and then distribute these papers to the learners, wait for them to complete and submit the test before the instructors can grade the tests, write feedback and prepare reports.
It was only when technology-based assessment systems arrived that the idea of pen and paper assessments became redundant and slowly gave way to a better, more effective system of assessment. Compelling features such as accessibility, scalability, and security make online computer-based assessments the most desirable and this is the main reason for their wide adoption. And why not? A machine can now do everything that instructors used to do before, allowing them to focus on the more important tasks on hand.
But what is a computer-based assessment? How does it work? What are the advantages of using this type of testing? In simple terms, computer-based assessment is the practice of assigning quizzes and tests to learners on a computer instead of paper.
Computer-based assessments are already used widely in many eLearning environments. This type of test is also being used in schools, starting as early as third grade, often to deliver standardized tests, as well as in colleges and universities and in employee training programs. Computer based assessment is not a new idea—in fact, it has been around in some form sincewhen the very first computer based training CBT system was built.
Any type of testing that involves the use of these technologies, as opposed to paper and pencils, can be considered under the umbrella of computer based assessment. It is quite obvious that assessments that run on computers are computer-based assessments. All online assessments are computer based but not all computer-based assessments are online.
Offline assessments: Let us begin with offline assessments. These are the assessments that are created on a computer-based test software and are available only on a single device. These tests are offline, so a single set of tests cannot be taken on two devices simultaneously and the responses are stored in a database. The grades are assigned manually and the reports are prepared much later. Online assessments: Online assessments or online computer-based tests are created using online assessment software so they can be taken anytime, anywhere, and on any device.
Online assessment in education is vital since a single set of tests or assessments can be attempted on many devices at the same time. The answers can be automatically graded and the responses are stored in auto-generated reports. The reports can be visited anytime by instructors to review individual or group performances. You can easily create reports using an online assessment tool.
Online computer-based assessment is a broad term that encompasses several different types of testing tools and technologies. One of the most common tools is a computer-based assessment software in which an instructor uses a web-based assessment software to create and share an assessment. The online assessment creator automatically takes care of all of the administrative tasks—tracking who has completed the test, collecting data such as how much time students spend on each question, and even grading the tests and providing feedback to the students.
Well, any feature that makes the task of assessing someone easier and accurate is considered an advantage. Check out some of the primary advantages listed below:. It takes less time for teachers to prepare, distribute, and grade online tests compared to paper tests.
Students can take the assessment at a convenient time and place they choose, rather than having to take it at a fixed schedule.
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